Volcano Safety Tips, Preparation, and Readiness

Millions of individuals around the globe reside close to one of many roughly 1,500 energetic volcanoes on Earth—from Italy’s Campi Flegrei to Indonesia’s Merapi to the United States’ Mount Rainier. While that will appear loopy to some, there is a myriad of the explanation why individuals name these volcanic landscapes dwelling.

Fertile soils often blanket their slopes because of the sluggish breakdown of historical volcanic rocks, which releases a bunch of vitamins very important for wholesome crops and vineyards that produce flavorful grapes. Volcanoes even have deep roots within the historical past of civilizations, resulting in their starring position within the spirituality and mythos of many cultures. And they spark the creativeness, drawing quite a few guests to their flanks who feed a worthwhile business in tourism. (See dramatic photographs of volcanoes around the globe.)

Yet their fiery matches may be as harmful as they’re mesmerizing, sending rivers of molten rock and avalanches of searing ash and fuel barreling down their sloping sides. So for those who reside close to certainly one of these mighty options—or plan to go to one in your subsequent journey—right here’s some hazards to pay attention to and steps you’ll be able to take to remain protected throughout an eruption.

What are some eruption hazards?

Volcanoes pose an ever-shifting array of risks, and every volcano is completely different. Some explode with fearsome drive, just like the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. Other volcanoes ship streams of lava flowing down their flanks, like what occurred throughout Kilauea’s 2018 eruption. And these risks can spark many different points together with fires and flows of debris. The following are among the many hazards volcanoes can pose:

Lava flows: These rivers of molten rock are extraordinarily sizzling. While their exact temperature depends on their chemistry, lava flows can exceed a searing 2,000 levels Fahrenheit—sizzling sufficient to soften copper. The temperature and chemistry additionally play into the lava’s viscosity, which controls how briskly it flows. While some may be readily out-walked, others rush surprisingly rapidly. When Kilauea erupted in 2018, it was oozing lava close to the vent at a fee of 15 miles per hour, sooner than the overwhelming majority of individuals can run.

Volcanic projectiles: These bits of searing sizzling rock are flung from energetic vents or volcanic craters. If they’re bigger than 2.5 inches throughout, they’re dubbed lava bombs. While claims of refrigerator-sized lava bombs throughout Kilauea’s 2018 eruption have been overblown, these blazing blocks may be as much as a number of yards throughout. And at scorching sizzling temperatures, even small volcanic projectiles may be harmful, setting fires, breaking bones, and melting human flesh.

Pyroclastic flows: Blistering-hot avalanches of gasses, rocks, and volcanic ash can barrel down a volcano’s slopes, burying constructions, sparking fires, and destroying every little thing of their path. They are extraordinarily speedy, with some dashing as quick as 450 miles per hour. Pyroclastic flows may even travel uphill or cross water. Volcanoes that produce such flows are extraordinarily harmful. For instance, pyroclastic flows abounded throughout the notorious eruption of Mount Vesuvious in 79 A.D. that devastated town of Pompeii, Italy. (Read about how Vesuvious could have killed its victims.)

Lahars or particles flows: This time period describes a sizzling or chilly slurry of water and rock fragments that rushes down a volcano’s slopes like “rivers of concrete,” according to the USGS. These usually observe valleys or river channels and might transfer startlingly quick. While a lahar could begin small, it might develop because it travels, carrying alongside any particles it encounters.

Toxic gases: Volcanoes also release toxic gasses, similar to carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and hydrogen chloride. Some of those, like sulfur dioxide, are extraordinarily corrosive and might irritate the pores and skin, eyes, and respiratory programs of hapless onlookers. In uncommon circumstances, the gasses may be lethal: A surge of carbon dioxide poured out of Africa’s volcanic Lake Nyos in 1986, sweeping a close-by village and suffocating a whole bunch of individuals and cattle.

Volcanic ash: Unlike the fluffy bits that linger after a camp fireplace, volcanic ash is made up of tiny fragments of rock and shards of glass. It’s damaging to lungs and might type a hefty blanket over close by cities—even collapsing roofs of some constructions. Ash can even shoot miles excessive into the sky and rain down for a lot of miles round, posing a hazard for individuals fairly removed from an energetic volcano. (Learn about how lightning will help sign the beginning of doubtless harmful eruptions of farflung volcanoes.)

What to do earlier than an eruption?

Unlike earthquakes, volcanoes rouse from sleep with some discover—shaking the bottom, bulging their flanks, or shifting the gases wafting from their craters and vents. And for a lot of volcanoes close to populations, scientists closely watch their every move, which permits them to raised perceive once they may burst to life.

So for those who reside close to a volcano, or plan to go to one, familiarize your self with the local monitoring agencies. Understand the place you’ll be able to safely tromp and where you need to steer clear, areas generally known as exclusion zones. It’s additionally vital to lookup evacuation routes and hazards particular to your location.

Some locations supply common updates of volcanic exercise. For instance, the U.S. Geological Survey’s Volcano Notification Service emails details about monitored volcanoes within the United States, which boasts greater than 10 p.c of the planet’s energetic or doubtlessly energetic volcanoes.

Another very important preparation step is assembling an emergency kit that features provides like meals, water, respiratory safety, eye safety, and a battery-powered radio. When getting ready your package, think about every member of your loved ones and their wants—and don’t forget your pets. The Department of Homeland Security has a detailed guide about placing collectively a package for a lot of completely different contingencies.

Even if you’re simply visiting a volcano for a day, be sure you are touring with applicable footwear, first help provides, and loads of water.

“Volcanoes can change very quickly and eruptions can begin with little to no warning,” cautions volcanologist Janine Krippner in a blog entry about important safety measures to take when visiting volcanoes.

What to do throughout an eruption?

During a disaster, be cautious of misinformation and attempt to stick to official sources, lots of which talk risks by means of social media. For instance, Krippner has assembled a handy list of official volcano agency Twitter accounts. Follow directions from authorities throughout an eruption, and evacuate if you’re inside areas informed to take action.

If you’re instructed to stay in your house, shut all home windows, doorways, and different factors of entry for ash. Bring pets inside and transfer livestock to shelters, when in any respect attainable. Avoid working air-con programs, followers, and heaters throughout or instantly after an eruption, since they’ll pull in volcanic gasses and ash. Also, fill massive containers, sinks, and bathtubs with clear water since eruptions may cause disruptions or contamination of water supplies.

If an evacuation appears on the horizon, the Centers for Disease Control recommends gathering further provides to maintain in your car, which ought to embody flares, maps, primary instruments, sleeping luggage, and a hearth extinguisher. When packing private gadgets, take solely the necessities. And don’t neglect together with a minimum of per week’s provide of any required prescription medicines. If you don’t personal a car, contact neighbors or others close by who may be capable of present a experience in case you and your loved ones want to depart.

If you have to be exterior, attempt to use a masks at any time when attainable. The CDC recommends using N-95 respirators, which may be bought in a ironmongery shop. While a nightfall masks can be utilized as a final resort, the CDC cautions that they solely needs to be used open air for brief intervals of time when ash is falling. Other ash safety contains long-sleeved shirts and lengthy pants in addition to goggles. Be conscious of your environment, and be additional cautious if you’re in low-lying areas or close to river valleys as these generally funnel particles flows.

What to do after an eruption?

Heed authorities’ directions for when it’s protected to return exterior or return to your own home. Alert household and mates of your standing by way of textual content message or utilizing the Red Cross’ Safe and Well website. Avoid making cellphone calls until it’s an emergency as telecommunications are generally very busy throughout and after disasters.

When it’s protected to return dwelling, verify the construction and utilities for harm. The Red Cross has helpful guides that detail what to search for when returning after disaster. Also, doc any harm in photographs for insurance purposes.

Don respiratory safety when cleansing up ash indoors or out. The Red Cross suggests eradicating ash out of your roof as quickly as attainable since it’s heavy and trigger structural collapse—an issue solely made worse with rainfall. However, be additional cautious with ash elimination if in case you have respiration issues. Also, for those who should climb in your roof, be careful, since ash can also be slippery and trigger falls.

Such highly effective shows of Earth’s fearsome drive may be scary, however with some preparation and shut following of official directions, you’ll be able to scale back the chance of being blindsided by a blast.

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While that may seem crazy to some, there’s a myriad of reasons why people call these volcanic landscapes home.”,”type”:”p”,”id”:”html1″,”cntnt”:”mrkup”:”Fertile soils frequently blanket their slopes thanks to the slow breakdown of ancient volcanic rocks, which releases a host of nutrients vital for healthy crops and vineyards that produce flavorful grapes. Volcanoes also have deep roots in the history of civilizations, leading to their starring role in the spirituality and mythos of many cultures. And they spark the imagination, drawing numerous visitors to their flanks who feed a profitable industry in tourism. (See dramatic photos of volcanoes around the world.)”,”type”:”p”,”id”:”html2″,”cntnt”:”mrkup”:”Yet their fiery fits can be as dangerous as they are mesmerizing, sending rivers of molten rock and avalanches of searing ash and gas barreling down their sloping sides. So if you live near one of these mighty features—or plan to visit one on your next trip—here’s some hazards to be aware of and steps you can take to stay safe during an eruption.”,”type”:”p”,”id”:”html3″,”cntnt”:”mrkup”:”What are some eruption hazards?”,”type”:”h2″,”id”:”html4″,”cntnt”:”mrkup”:”Volcanoes pose an ever-shifting array of dangers, and each volcano is different. Some explode with fearsome force, like the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. Other volcanoes send streams of lava flowing down their flanks, like what happened during Kilauea’s 2018 eruption. And these dangers can spark many other issues including fires and flows of debris. The following are some of the many hazards volcanoes can pose:”,”type”:”p”,”id”:”html5″,”cntnt”:”mrkup”:”Lava flows: These rivers of molten rock are extremely hot. While their exact temperature depends on their chemistry, lava flows can exceed a searing 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit—hot enough to melt copper. The temperature and chemistry also play into the lava’s viscosity, which controls how fast it flows. While some can be readily out-walked, others rush surprisingly quickly. When Kilauea erupted in 2018, it was oozing lava near the vent at a rate of 15 miles per hour, faster than the vast majority of people can run.”,”type”:”p”,”id”:”inline-1″,”cntnt”:”id”:”inline-1″,”image”:”crps”:[“nm”:”raw”,”aspRto”:1.7777777777777777,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/59b18116-d92d-42a6-802c-a0d70de10f02/00000163-518d-d088-ab73-dbff58140000.jpg”,”nm”:”16×9″,”aspRto”:1.7777777777777777,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/59b18116-d92d-42a6-802c-a0d70de10f02/00000163-518d-d088-ab73-dbff58140000_16x9.jpg”,”nm”:”3×2″,”aspRto”:1.5,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/59b18116-d92d-42a6-802c-a0d70de10f02/00000163-518d-d088-ab73-dbff58140000_3x2.jpg”,”nm”:”square”,”aspRto”:1,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/59b18116-d92d-42a6-802c-a0d70de10f02/00000163-518d-d088-ab73-dbff58140000_square.jpg”,”nm”:”2×3″,”aspRto”:0.6666666666666666,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/59b18116-d92d-42a6-802c-a0d70de10f02/00000163-518d-d088-ab73-dbff58140000_2x3.jpg”,”nm”:”3×4″,”aspRto”:0.75,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/59b18116-d92d-42a6-802c-a0d70de10f02/00000163-518d-d088-ab73-dbff58140000_3x4.jpg”,”nm”:”4×3″,”aspRto”:1.3333333333333333,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/59b18116-d92d-42a6-802c-a0d70de10f02/00000163-518d-d088-ab73-dbff58140000_4x3.jpg”,”nm”:”2×1″,”aspRto”:2,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/59b18116-d92d-42a6-802c-a0d70de10f02/00000163-518d-d088-ab73-dbff58140000_2x1.jpg”],”rt”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/59b18116-d92d-42a6-802c-a0d70de10f02/00000163-518d-d088-ab73-dbff58140000″,”src”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/59b18116-d92d-42a6-802c-a0d70de10f02/00000163-518d-d088-ab73-dbff58140000.jpg”,”altText”:”How the Kilauea Eruption Affected this Hawaii Community”,”ext”:”jpg”,”cmsType”:”video”,”lines”:3,”positionMetaBottom”:true,”pId”:”dbfb39d2-f3c8-405a-b540-c6bce8da62eb”,”imgSrc”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/59b18116-d92d-42a6-802c-a0d70de10f02/00000163-518d-d088-ab73-dbff58140000.jpg”,”align”:”contentWidth”,”autoplay”:true,”description”:”WATCH: Sharing a deep connection to nature’s power—and to people displaced by it—two photographers document a volcano’s destruction, and help the Leilani Estates community recover.”,”duration”:”2:29″,”pblshDt”:”2018-05-11T23:33:42.000Z”,”rwDur”:149951,”slideTitle”:”How the Kilauea Eruption Affected this Hawaii Community”,”title”:”How the Kilauea Eruption Affected this Hawaii Community”,”size”:”small”,”type”:”inline”,”id”:”html6″,”cntnt”:”mrkup”:”Volcanic projectiles: These bits of searing hot rock are flung from active vents or volcanic craters. If they’re larger than 2.5 inches across, they’re dubbed lava bombs. While claims of refrigerator-sized lava bombs during Kilauea’s 2018 eruption were overblown, these blazing blocks can be up to several yards across. And at sizzling hot temperatures, even small volcanic projectiles can be dangerous, setting fires, breaking bones, and melting human flesh.”,”type”:”p”,”id”:”html7″,”cntnt”:”mrkup”:”Pyroclastic flows: Blistering-hot avalanches of gasses, rocks, and volcanic ash can barrel down a volcano’s slopes, burying structures, sparking fires, and destroying everything in their path. They are extremely speedy, with some rushing as fast as 450 miles per hour. Pyroclastic flows can even travel uphill or cross water. Volcanoes that produce such flows are extremely dangerous. For example, pyroclastic flows abounded during the infamous eruption of Mount Vesuvious in 79 A.D. that devastated the city of Pompeii, Italy. (Read about how Vesuvious may have killed its victims.)”,”type”:”p”,”id”:”html8″,”cntnt”:”mrkup”:”Lahars or debris flows: This term describes a hot or cold slurry of water and rock fragments that rushes down a volcano’s slopes like “rivers of concrete,” according to the USGS. These often follow valleys or river channels and can move startlingly fast. While a lahar may start small, it can grow as it travels, carrying along any debris it encounters.”,”type”:”p”,”id”:”html9″,”cntnt”:”mrkup”:”Toxic gases: Volcanoes also release toxic gasses, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and hydrogen chloride. Some of these, like sulfur dioxide, are extremely corrosive and can irritate the skin, eyes, and respiratory systems of hapless onlookers. In rare cases, the gasses can be deadly: A surge of carbon dioxide poured out of Africa’s volcanic Lake Nyos in 1986, sweeping a nearby village and suffocating hundreds of people and cattle.”,”type”:”p”,”id”:”html10″,”cntnt”:”mrkup”:”Volcanic ash: Unlike the fluffy bits that linger after a camp fire, volcanic ash is made up of tiny fragments of rock and shards of glass. It’s damaging to lungs and can form a hefty blanket over nearby towns—even collapsing roofs of some structures. Ash can also shoot miles high into the sky and rain down for many miles around, posing a hazard for people quite far from an active volcano. (Learn about how lightning can help signal the start of potentially dangerous eruptions of farflung volcanoes.)”,”type”:”p”,”id”:”html11″,”cntnt”:”mrkup”:”What to do before an eruption?”,”type”:”h2″,”id”:”html12″,”cntnt”:”mrkup”:”Unlike earthquakes, volcanoes rouse from sleep with some notice—shaking the ground, bulging their flanks, or shifting the gases wafting from their craters and vents. And for many volcanoes near populations, scientists closely watch their every move, which allows them to better understand when they might burst to life.”,”type”:”p”,”id”:”html13″,”cntnt”:”mrkup”:”So if you live near a volcano, or plan to visit one, familiarize yourself with the local monitoring agencies. Understand where you can safely tromp and where you need to steer clear, regions known as exclusion zones. It’s also important to look up evacuation routes and hazards specific to your location.”,”type”:”p”,”id”:”html14″,”cntnt”:”mrkup”:”Some places offer regular updates of volcanic activity. For example, the U.S. Geological Survey’s Volcano Notification Service emails information about monitored volcanoes in the United States, which boasts more than 10 percent of the planet’s active or potentially active volcanoes.”,”type”:”p”,”id”:”html15″,”cntnt”:”mrkup”:”Another vital preparation step is assembling an emergency kit that includes supplies like food, water, respiratory protection, eye protection, and a battery-powered radio. When preparing your kit, consider each member of your family and their needs—and don’t forget your pets. The Department of Homeland Security has a detailed guide about putting together a kit for many different contingencies.”,”type”:”p”,”id”:”html16″,”cntnt”:”mrkup”:”Even if you are just visiting a volcano for a day, make sure you are traveling with appropriate footwear, first aid supplies, and plenty of water.”,”type”:”p”,”id”:”html17″,”cntnt”:”mrkup”:”“Volcanoes can change very quickly and eruptions can begin with little to no warning,” cautions volcanologist Janine Krippner in a blog entry about important safety measures to take when visiting volcanoes.”,”type”:”p”,”id”:”inline-2″,”cntnt”:”id”:”inline-2″,”image”:”crps”:[“nm”:”raw”,”aspRto”:1.7777777777777777,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/55eed0e5-0e5c-4b84-895e-174d00bd9fd2/0000014f-d715-dd38-ab4f-ff150f9b0000.jpg”,”nm”:”16×9″,”aspRto”:1.7777777777777777,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/55eed0e5-0e5c-4b84-895e-174d00bd9fd2/0000014f-d715-dd38-ab4f-ff150f9b0000_16x9.jpg”,”nm”:”3×2″,”aspRto”:1.5,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/55eed0e5-0e5c-4b84-895e-174d00bd9fd2/0000014f-d715-dd38-ab4f-ff150f9b0000_3x2.jpg”,”nm”:”square”,”aspRto”:1,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/55eed0e5-0e5c-4b84-895e-174d00bd9fd2/0000014f-d715-dd38-ab4f-ff150f9b0000_square.jpg”,”nm”:”2×3″,”aspRto”:0.6666666666666666,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/55eed0e5-0e5c-4b84-895e-174d00bd9fd2/0000014f-d715-dd38-ab4f-ff150f9b0000_2x3.jpg”,”nm”:”3×4″,”aspRto”:0.75,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/55eed0e5-0e5c-4b84-895e-174d00bd9fd2/0000014f-d715-dd38-ab4f-ff150f9b0000_3x4.jpg”,”nm”:”4×3″,”aspRto”:1.3333333333333333,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/55eed0e5-0e5c-4b84-895e-174d00bd9fd2/0000014f-d715-dd38-ab4f-ff150f9b0000_4x3.jpg”,”nm”:”2×1″,”aspRto”:2,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/55eed0e5-0e5c-4b84-895e-174d00bd9fd2/0000014f-d715-dd38-ab4f-ff150f9b0000_2x1.jpg”],”rt”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/55eed0e5-0e5c-4b84-895e-174d00bd9fd2/0000014f-d715-dd38-ab4f-ff150f9b0000″,”src”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/55eed0e5-0e5c-4b84-895e-174d00bd9fd2/0000014f-d715-dd38-ab4f-ff150f9b0000.jpg”,”altText”:”Hawaii’s Lava Flow Is a Mesmerizing Force”,”ext”:”jpg”,”cmsType”:”video”,”lines”:3,”positionMetaBottom”:true,”pId”:”9f5c9854-1418-4190-95ae-e6e74e46032d”,”imgSrc”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/55eed0e5-0e5c-4b84-895e-174d00bd9fd2/0000014f-d715-dd38-ab4f-ff150f9b0000.jpg”,”align”:”contentWidth”,”autoplay”:true,”description”:”Come face-to-face with one of nature’s most intriguing phenomena, lava, in this short from Page Films. The Short Film Showcase spotlights exceptional short videos created by filmmakers from around the web and selected by National Geographic editors. The filmmakers created the content presented, and the opinions expressed are their own, not those of the National Geographic Society.”,”duration”:”6:36″,”pblshDt”:”2015-09-16T16:55:27.000Z”,”rwDur”:396542,”slideTitle”:”Hawaii’s Lava Flow Is a Mesmerizing Force”,”title”:”Hawaii’s Lava Flow Is a Mesmerizing Force”,”size”:”small”,”type”:”inline”,”id”:”html18″,”cntnt”:”mrkup”:”What to do during an eruption?”,”type”:”h2″,”id”:”html19″,”cntnt”:”mrkup”:”During a disaster, be wary of misinformation and try to stick to official sources, many of which communicate dangers through social media. For example, Krippner has assembled a handy list of official volcano agency Twitter accounts. Follow instructions from authorities during an eruption, and evacuate if you are within areas told to do so.”,”type”:”p”,”id”:”html20″,”cntnt”:”mrkup”:”If you are instructed to remain in your home, close all windows, doors, and other points of entry for ash. Bring pets inside and move livestock to shelters, when at all possible. Avoid running air conditioning systems, fans, and heaters during or immediately after an eruption, since they can pull in volcanic gasses and ash. Also, fill large containers, sinks, and bathtubs with clean water since eruptions can cause disruptions or contamination of water supplies. “,”type”:”p”,”id”:”html21″,”cntnt”:”mrkup”:”If an evacuation seems on the horizon, the Centers for Disease Control recommends gathering additional supplies to keep in your vehicle, which should include flares, maps, basic tools, sleeping bags, and a fire extinguisher. When packing personal items, take only the essentials. And don’t forget including at least a week’s supply of any required prescription medications. If you don’t own a vehicle, contact neighbors or others nearby who might be able to provide a ride in case you and your family need to leave.”,”type”:”p”,”id”:”html22″,”cntnt”:”mrkup”:”If you must be outside, try to use a mask whenever possible. The CDC recommends the use of N-95 respirators, which can be purchased in a hardware store. While a dusk mask can be used as a last resort, the CDC cautions that they only should be used outdoors for short periods of time when ash is falling. Other ash protection includes long-sleeved shirts and long pants as well as goggles. Be aware of your surroundings, and be extra cautious if you are in low-lying regions or near river valleys as those commonly funnel debris flows.”,”type”:”p”,”id”:”html23″,”cntnt”:”mrkup”:”What to do after an eruption?”,”type”:”h2″,”id”:”html24″,”cntnt”:”mrkup”:”Heed authorities’ instructions for when it’s safe to go back outside or return to your home. Alert family and friends of your status via text message or using the Red Cross’ Safe and Well website. Avoid making phone calls unless it is an emergency as telecommunications are commonly very busy during and after disasters.”,”type”:”p”,”id”:”html25″,”cntnt”:”mrkup”:”When it is safe to return home, check the structure and utilities for damage. The Red Cross has helpful guides that detail what to look for when returning after disaster. Also, document any damage in photos for insurance purposes.”,”type”:”p”,”id”:”html26″,”cntnt”:”mrkup”:”Don respiratory protection when cleaning up ash indoors or out. The Red Cross suggests removing ash from your roof as soon as possible since it is heavy and cause structural collapse—a problem only made worse with rainfall. However, be extra careful with ash removal if you have breathing problems. Also, if you must climb on your roof, watch out, since ash can also be slippery and cause falls.”,”type”:”p”,”id”:”html27″,”cntnt”:”mrkup”:”Such powerful displays of Earth’s fearsome force can be frightening, but with some preparation and close following of official instructions, you can reduce the risk of being blindsided by a blast.”,”type”:”p”],”cid”:”drn:src:natgeo:unison::prod:e9473b3b-16db-48bf-90ff-b58df55de828″,”cntrbGrp”:[“contributors”:[“displayName”:”Maya Wei-Haas”],”title”:”By”,”rl”:”Writer”],”mode”:”richtext”,”dscrptn”:”These fiery features can be as dangerous as they are mesmerizing. Here are a few things to keep in mind if you live near or plan to visit a volcano.”,”enableAds”:true,”endbug”:true,”isMetered”:true,”isUserAuthed”:false,”ldMda”:”cmsType”:”image”,”hasCopyright”:true,”id”:”4c3c1456-9025-40fe-897a-68d14de7ef3e”,”lines”:3,”positionMetaBottom”:true,”showMore”:true,”caption”:”

Soufriere Hills Volcano overlooks an abandoned town near Montserrat in the West Indies. The regular eruptions of Soufriere Hills frequently force residents in surrounding villages to abandon their homes for safer ground, rendering much of Montserrat uninhabitable.

n”,”credit”:”Photograph by Vladimir Voychuk, National Geographic Your Shot”,”image”:”crps”:[“nm”:”raw”,”aspRto”:1.500507614213198,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4c3c1456-9025-40fe-897a-68d14de7ef3e/best-pod-dec-08.jpg”,”nm”:”16×9″,”aspRto”:1.7777777777777777,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4c3c1456-9025-40fe-897a-68d14de7ef3e/best-pod-dec-08_16x9.jpg”,”nm”:”3×2″,”aspRto”:1.5,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4c3c1456-9025-40fe-897a-68d14de7ef3e/best-pod-dec-08_3x2.jpg”,”nm”:”square”,”aspRto”:1,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4c3c1456-9025-40fe-897a-68d14de7ef3e/best-pod-dec-08_square.jpg”,”nm”:”2×3″,”aspRto”:0.6666666666666666,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4c3c1456-9025-40fe-897a-68d14de7ef3e/best-pod-dec-08_2x3.jpg”,”nm”:”3×4″,”aspRto”:0.75,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4c3c1456-9025-40fe-897a-68d14de7ef3e/best-pod-dec-08_3x4.jpg”,”nm”:”4×3″,”aspRto”:1.3333333333333333,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4c3c1456-9025-40fe-897a-68d14de7ef3e/best-pod-dec-08_4x3.jpg”,”nm”:”2×1″,”aspRto”:2,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4c3c1456-9025-40fe-897a-68d14de7ef3e/best-pod-dec-08_2x1.jpg”],”rt”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4c3c1456-9025-40fe-897a-68d14de7ef3e/best-pod-dec-08″,”src”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4c3c1456-9025-40fe-897a-68d14de7ef3e/best-pod-dec-08.jpg”,”altText”:”volcano erupting in Kamchatka, Russia”,”crdt”:”Photograph by Vladimir Voychuk, National Geographic Your Shot”,”dsc”:”“This is how the planet’s fiery breath looks,” writes Your Shot photographer Vladimir Voychuk, “when the volcano wakes.” The “blazing glow” of Klyuchevskaya Sopka, considered the tallest active volcano in Eurasia, is visible from more than 60 miles away, according to Voychuk. Klyuchevskaya Sopka is located on Russia’s Kamchatka Peninsula, approximately 60 miles west of the Bering Sea, and towers nearly 16,000 feet at its peak.”,”ext”:”jpg”,”ttl”:”Fire on the Mountain”,”imageAlt”:”volcano erupting in Kamchatka, Russia”,”imageSrc”:[“sources”:”x1″:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4c3c1456-9025-40fe-897a-68d14de7ef3e/best-pod-dec-08.jpg?w=374&h=249″,”x2″:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4c3c1456-9025-40fe-897a-68d14de7ef3e/best-pod-dec-08.jpg?w=748&h=498″,”media”:”(max-width: 374px)”,”sources”:”x1″:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4c3c1456-9025-40fe-897a-68d14de7ef3e/best-pod-dec-08.jpg?w=413&h=275″,”x2″:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4c3c1456-9025-40fe-897a-68d14de7ef3e/best-pod-dec-08.jpg?w=826&h=550″,”media”:”(max-width: 413px)”,”sources”:”x1″:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4c3c1456-9025-40fe-897a-68d14de7ef3e/best-pod-dec-08.jpg?w=636&h=424″,”x2″:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4c3c1456-9025-40fe-897a-68d14de7ef3e/best-pod-dec-08.jpg?w=1272&h=848″,”media”:”(min-width: 414px)”],”hideEndBug”:true,”type”:”imageLead”,”hideLine”:true,”deferImages”:false,”mdDt”:”2021-05-04T14:53:25.261Z”,”pbDt”:”2019-09-27T14:00:00.000Z”,”readTime”:”10 min read”,”schma”:”athrs”:[“name”:”Maya Wei-Haas”],”cnnicl”:”https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/article/volcano-safety-tips”,”kywrds”:”disaster, kilauea, vesuvius, volcano hazards, volcano risks, volcano eruption, emergency kit, volcanic eruptions, safety, volcanoes, plate tectonics”,”lg”:”https://assets-cdn.nationalgeographic.com/natgeo/static/default.NG.logo.dark.jpg”,”pblshr”:”National Geographic”,”abt”:”Volcanic Eruptions”,”sclDsc”:”These fiery features can be as dangerous as they are mesmerizing. Here are a few things to keep in mind if you live near or plan to visit a volcano.”,”sclImg”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/da12f8c1-e962-4318-aebc-444dded7f5d0/40_16x9.jpg?w=1200″,”sclTtl”:”Volcano Safety Tips, Preparation, and Readiness”,”sctn”:”Environment”,”sctnLbls”:[“name”:”Environment”,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:”https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment”,”name”:”Reference”,”type”:”genres”],”shrURLs”:”fbIcon”:”facebook”,”fb”:”https://www.facebook.com/sharer.php?u=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.nationalgeographic.com%2Fenvironment%2Farticle%2Fvolcano-safety-tips”,”fbAriaLabel”:”article.facebookShare.ariaLabel”,”fbLabel”:”article.facebookShare.label”,”fbButtonTracking”:”event_name”:”share”,”share_content_type”:”article”,”content_title”:”volcano safety tips, preparation, and readiness”,”share_method”:”facebook”,”emailIcon”:”email__filled”,”email”:”mailto:?subject=Volcano%20Safety%20Tips%2C%20Preparation%2C%20and%20Readiness&body=These%20fiery%20features%20can%20be%20as%20dangerous%20as%20they%20are%20mesmerizing.%20Here%20are%20a%20few%20things%20to%20keep%20in%20mind%20if%20you%20live%20near%20or%20plan%20to%20visit%20a%20volcano.%0A%0Ahttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.nationalgeographic.com%2Fenvironment%2Farticle%2Fvolcano-safety-tips”,”emailLabel”:”Email”,”emailButtonTracking”:”event_name”:”share”,”share_content_type”:”article”,”content_title”:”volcano safety tips, preparation, and readiness”,”share_method”:”email”,”twitter”:”https://twitter.com/intent/tweet?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.nationalgeographic.com%2Fenvironment%2Farticle%2Fvolcano-safety-tips&text=Volcano%20Safety%20Tips%2C%20Preparation%2C%20and%20Readiness&via=NatGeo”,”twitterLabel”:”Tweet”,”twitterButtonTracking”:”event_name”:”share”,”share_content_type”:”article”,”content_title”:”volcano safety tips, preparation, and readiness”,”share_method”:”twitter”,”title”:”Volcano Safety Tips”,”wrdcnt”:1741}]}],”cmsType”:”ArticleBodyFrame”},”id”:”email-sticky-footer-frame1″,”mods”:[“id”:”466c63e8-96c0-48f6-b48e-26ec8787bea9″,”cmsType”:”StackModule”,”align”:”left”,”edgs”:[“id”:”86d7bec4-ff47-4a76-aad9-768e22bbfed3″,”cmsType”:”EmailStickyFooterTile”,”title”:”Enter your email address to continue reading”,”errorMessage”:”Please enter a valid e-mail address”,”mrktngMeta”:”cpgnCd”:”20220823_global_email wall_environment”,”subtitle”:”Stay up to date on our ever-changing earth.”,”success”:”description”:”

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“,”header”:”Thanks for signing up!”,”footer”:”Watch your inbox over the next few days for photos, stories, and special offers from us.”,”submitButton”:”CONTINUE”,”closeableGeos”:[“uk”]]],{“id”:”paywall-meter-frame1″,”mods”:[“id”:”paywall-meter-frame1-module2″,”cmsType”:”StackModule”,”align”:”left”,”edgs”:[“id”:”paywall-meter-frame1-module2-tile1″,”cmsType”:”PaywallMeterTile”,”heading”:”Exploration is just a click away.”,”description”:”Subscribe to get unlimited digital access to National Geographic.”,”cta”:”text”:”Subscribe”,”url”:”https://ngmintlsubs.nationalgeographic.com/checkout/SingleItem?publ=NGEO&pubc=NF1&prom=I2KCYRNB”,”target”:”_self”,”image”:”crps”:[“nm”:”raw”,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/6333a603-7ecc-4d2c-acbc-7c6f031cfe0f/ngm-iphone.png”],”campaignName”:”20210217_ROW_paywall_counter”]]},null,{“id”:”natgeo-web-template-readthisnext-frame”,”mods”:[“id”:”natgeo-web-template-readthisnext-module”,”cmsType”:”RecirculationGridModule”,”itemTruncate”:”description”:4,”title”:4,”contentList”:[“description”:”The newest seaside trend is searching for seaweed—a fun and sustainable way to explore the world’s coastal areas.”,”img”:”crps”:[“nm”:”raw”,”aspRto”:1.5444947209653093,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/be0d3f96-e718-4aef-9872-c0d9cca62a9e/resized-GettyImages-1321820629.jpg”,”nm”:”16×9″,”aspRto”:1.7777777777777777,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/be0d3f96-e718-4aef-9872-c0d9cca62a9e/resized-GettyImages-1321820629_16x9.jpg”,”nm”:”3×2″,”aspRto”:1.5,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/be0d3f96-e718-4aef-9872-c0d9cca62a9e/resized-GettyImages-1321820629_3x2.jpg”,”nm”:”square”,”aspRto”:1,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/be0d3f96-e718-4aef-9872-c0d9cca62a9e/resized-GettyImages-1321820629_square.jpg”,”nm”:”2×3″,”aspRto”:0.6666666666666666,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/be0d3f96-e718-4aef-9872-c0d9cca62a9e/resized-GettyImages-1321820629_2x3.jpg”,”nm”:”3×4″,”aspRto”:0.75,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/be0d3f96-e718-4aef-9872-c0d9cca62a9e/resized-GettyImages-1321820629_3x4.jpg”,”nm”:”4×3″,”aspRto”:1.3333333333333333,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/be0d3f96-e718-4aef-9872-c0d9cca62a9e/resized-GettyImages-1321820629_4x3.jpg”,”nm”:”2×1″,”aspRto”:2,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/be0d3f96-e718-4aef-9872-c0d9cca62a9e/resized-GettyImages-1321820629_2x1.jpg”],”rt”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/be0d3f96-e718-4aef-9872-c0d9cca62a9e/resized-GettyImages-1321820629″,”src”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/be0d3f96-e718-4aef-9872-c0d9cca62a9e/resized-GettyImages-1321820629.jpg”,”altText”:”A group of people harvest seaweed from rocky area of a beach”,”crdt”:”Photograph by Michael Macor, The San Francisco Chronicle / Getty Images”,”dsc”:”Heidi Herrman the owner of Strong Arm Farm in Healdsburg, (left) is seen along with her helpers Ariana Mazzuchi, and Jack Herron during the harvesting of bladderwrack seaweed north of Jenner, California on Wed. May 11, 2016, along the California coast.”,”ext”:”jpg”,”ttl”:”Seaweed Harvest”,”ratio”:”3×2″,”isFeatured”:true,”sections”:[“name”:”Travel”,”id”:”432c4f83-2d55-3974-b95f-a221c87c0fd1″,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:”https://www.nationalgeographic.com/travel”],”headline”:”Seaweed is a superfood you can forage. Here’s how.”,”link”:”https://www.nationalgeographic.com/travel/article/heres-where-to-find-seaweed-a-superfood-you-can-forage”,”description”:”Shea, argan, licorice, and more: Behind products like lotion, shampoos, and tea, complex supply chains hide environmental and social risks.”,”img”:”crps”:[“nm”:”raw”,”aspRto”:1.499267935578331,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/b3ac4699-5e3a-4585-b0b2-8c5c1af998a5/MM10014_20220825_134.jpg”,”nm”:”16×9″,”aspRto”:1.7777777777777777,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/b3ac4699-5e3a-4585-b0b2-8c5c1af998a5/MM10014_20220825_134_16x9.jpg”,”nm”:”3×2″,”aspRto”:1.5,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/b3ac4699-5e3a-4585-b0b2-8c5c1af998a5/MM10014_20220825_134_3x2.jpg”,”nm”:”square”,”aspRto”:1,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/b3ac4699-5e3a-4585-b0b2-8c5c1af998a5/MM10014_20220825_134_square.jpg”,”nm”:”2×3″,”aspRto”:0.6666666666666666,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/b3ac4699-5e3a-4585-b0b2-8c5c1af998a5/MM10014_20220825_134_2x3.jpg”,”nm”:”3×4″,”aspRto”:0.75,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/b3ac4699-5e3a-4585-b0b2-8c5c1af998a5/MM10014_20220825_134_3x4.jpg”,”nm”:”4×3″,”aspRto”:1.3333333333333333,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/b3ac4699-5e3a-4585-b0b2-8c5c1af998a5/MM10014_20220825_134_4x3.jpg”,”nm”:”2×1″,”aspRto”:2,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/b3ac4699-5e3a-4585-b0b2-8c5c1af998a5/MM10014_20220825_134_2x1.jpg”],”rt”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/b3ac4699-5e3a-4585-b0b2-8c5c1af998a5/MM10014_20220825_134″,”src”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/b3ac4699-5e3a-4585-b0b2-8c5c1af998a5/MM10014_20220825_134.jpg”,”altText”:”goldenseal, brazi nuts, frankincense, licorice root and gum arabic laid across dark leather.”,”crdt”:”Photograph by Rebecca Hale, National Geographic”,”dsc”:”Endangered plants shot for National Geographic . 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These lanes (foreground and left), also known as holle wegen, form a green network among farm fields where unique flora and fauna thrive.”,”ext”:”jpg”,”ttl”:”south-limburg”,”sections”:[“name”:”Environment”,”id”:”623ce370-3e67-3fb2-b9a5-070ceb9b2de5″,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:”https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment”],”headline”:”These ancient Dutch sunken roads hide stunning natural beauty”,”link”:”https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/article/these-ancient-dutch-sunken-roads-hide-stunning-natural-beauty”,”description”:”Experts warn that new cases of the deadly disease, long gone from most of the world, are just the tip of the iceberg. 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(Photo By BSIP/UIG Via Getty Images)”,”ext”:”jpg”,”ttl”:”GettyImages-151054471″,”sections”:[“name”:”Science”,”id”:”2af51eeb-09a8-3bcf-8467-6b2a08edb76c”,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:”https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science”],”headline”:”Why polio is making a comeback”,”link”:”https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/article/why-polio-is-making-a-comeback”],”headline”:”Read This Next”],”cmsType”:”EnhancedFrame”},”id”:”natgeo-globalpromo-ad-frame1″,”mods”:[“id”:”natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-ad”,”cmsType”:”StackModule”,”align”:”left”,”edgs”:[“id”:”natgeo-globalpromo-ad-tile”,”cmsType”:”AdTile”,”pos”:”infinitefeed”]],”cmsType”:”EnhancedFrame”,{“id”:”natgeo-globalpromo-frame1″,”fullWidth”:true,”mods”:[“id”:”natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-headline”,”cmsType”:”StackModule”,”align”:”left”,”edgs”:[“id”:”natgeo-globalpromo-headline-tile”,”cmsType”:”HeadlineTile”,”heading”:”Go Further”],”id”:”natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-animals”,”cmsType”:”CarouselModule”,”centerHeading”:true,”edgs”:[“id”:”natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-animals-tile”,”cmsType”:”RegularStandardPrismTile”,”cId”:”natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-animals-tile_f254b363-7655-40db-b8ce-93e6a9ef15cb”,”description”:”Biologists have a definition for teaching that very few animals actually meet, such as orcas and meerkats. Here are a few more from the head of the class.”,”ctas”:[“url”:”https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/article/why-animals-teachers-are-rare-and-remarkable”,”text”:”natgeo.ctaText.read”,”icon”:”article”],”img”:”crps”:[“nm”:”raw”,”aspRto”:1.5,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/985f26d4-d0f2-4a52-a936-8f07f414b9a5/NationalGeographic_2791022.jpg”,”nm”:”16×9″,”aspRto”:1.7777777777777777,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/985f26d4-d0f2-4a52-a936-8f07f414b9a5/NationalGeographic_2791022_16x9.jpg”,”nm”:”3×2″,”aspRto”:1.5,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/985f26d4-d0f2-4a52-a936-8f07f414b9a5/NationalGeographic_2791022_3x2.jpg”,”nm”:”square”,”aspRto”:1,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/985f26d4-d0f2-4a52-a936-8f07f414b9a5/NationalGeographic_2791022_square.jpg”,”nm”:”2×3″,”aspRto”:0.6666666666666666,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/985f26d4-d0f2-4a52-a936-8f07f414b9a5/NationalGeographic_2791022_2x3.jpg”,”nm”:”3×4″,”aspRto”:0.75,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/985f26d4-d0f2-4a52-a936-8f07f414b9a5/NationalGeographic_2791022_3x4.jpg”,”nm”:”4×3″,”aspRto”:1.3333333333333333,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/985f26d4-d0f2-4a52-a936-8f07f414b9a5/NationalGeographic_2791022_4x3.jpg”,”nm”:”2×1″,”aspRto”:2,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/985f26d4-d0f2-4a52-a936-8f07f414b9a5/NationalGeographic_2791022_2x1.jpg”],”rt”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/985f26d4-d0f2-4a52-a936-8f07f414b9a5/NationalGeographic_2791022″,”src”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/985f26d4-d0f2-4a52-a936-8f07f414b9a5/NationalGeographic_2791022.jpg”,”altText”:”Young meerkats follow their mother.”,”dsc”:”Young meerkats follow their mother.”,”ext”:”jpg”,”ttl”:”2791022″,”abstract”:”Biologists have a definition for teaching that very few animals actually meet, such as orcas and meerkats. Here are a few more from the head of the class.”,”title”:”Why animal teachers are so rare—and remarkable”,”tags”:[“name”:”Animals”,”id”:”fa010584-7bbf-3e92-90f9-586bb27fce94″,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:”https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals”],”id”:”natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-animals-tile”,”cmsType”:”RegularStandardPrismTile”,”cId”:”natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-animals-tile_0effabc4-9934-4179-af58-9e376421e7e8″,”description”:”At one of the largest sales in the country, seasoned traders and rescuers face off each month over the fate of hundreds of 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Soufriere Hills Volcano overlooks an abandoned town near Montserrat in the West Indies. The regular eruptions of Soufriere Hills frequently force residents in surrounding villages to abandon their homes for safer ground, rendering much of Montserrat uninhabitable.

n”,”credit”:”Photograph by Vladimir Voychuk, National Geographic Your Shot”,”image”:”crps”:[“nm”:”raw”,”aspRto”:1.500507614213198,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4c3c1456-9025-40fe-897a-68d14de7ef3e/best-pod-dec-08.jpg”,”nm”:”16×9″,”aspRto”:1.7777777777777777,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4c3c1456-9025-40fe-897a-68d14de7ef3e/best-pod-dec-08_16x9.jpg”,”nm”:”3×2″,”aspRto”:1.5,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4c3c1456-9025-40fe-897a-68d14de7ef3e/best-pod-dec-08_3x2.jpg”,”nm”:”square”,”aspRto”:1,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4c3c1456-9025-40fe-897a-68d14de7ef3e/best-pod-dec-08_square.jpg”,”nm”:”2×3″,”aspRto”:0.6666666666666666,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4c3c1456-9025-40fe-897a-68d14de7ef3e/best-pod-dec-08_2x3.jpg”,”nm”:”3×4″,”aspRto”:0.75,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4c3c1456-9025-40fe-897a-68d14de7ef3e/best-pod-dec-08_3x4.jpg”,”nm”:”4×3″,”aspRto”:1.3333333333333333,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4c3c1456-9025-40fe-897a-68d14de7ef3e/best-pod-dec-08_4x3.jpg”,”nm”:”2×1″,”aspRto”:2,”url”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4c3c1456-9025-40fe-897a-68d14de7ef3e/best-pod-dec-08_2x1.jpg”],”rt”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4c3c1456-9025-40fe-897a-68d14de7ef3e/best-pod-dec-08″,”src”:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4c3c1456-9025-40fe-897a-68d14de7ef3e/best-pod-dec-08.jpg”,”altText”:”volcano erupting in Kamchatka, Russia”,”crdt”:”Photograph by Vladimir Voychuk, National Geographic Your Shot”,”dsc”:”“This is how the planet’s fiery breath looks,” writes Your Shot photographer Vladimir Voychuk, “when the volcano wakes.” The “blazing glow” of Klyuchevskaya Sopka, considered the tallest active volcano in Eurasia, is visible from more than 60 miles away, according to Voychuk. Klyuchevskaya Sopka is located on Russia’s Kamchatka Peninsula, approximately 60 miles west of the Bering Sea, and towers nearly 16,000 feet at its peak.”,”ext”:”jpg”,”ttl”:”Fire on the Mountain”,”imageAlt”:”volcano erupting in Kamchatka, Russia”,”imageSrc”:[“sources”:”x1″:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4c3c1456-9025-40fe-897a-68d14de7ef3e/best-pod-dec-08.jpg?w=374&h=249″,”x2″:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4c3c1456-9025-40fe-897a-68d14de7ef3e/best-pod-dec-08.jpg?w=748&h=498″,”media”:”(max-width: 374px)”,”sources”:”x1″:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4c3c1456-9025-40fe-897a-68d14de7ef3e/best-pod-dec-08.jpg?w=413&h=275″,”x2″:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4c3c1456-9025-40fe-897a-68d14de7ef3e/best-pod-dec-08.jpg?w=826&h=550″,”media”:”(max-width: 413px)”,”sources”:”x1″:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4c3c1456-9025-40fe-897a-68d14de7ef3e/best-pod-dec-08.jpg?w=636&h=424″,”x2″:”https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4c3c1456-9025-40fe-897a-68d14de7ef3e/best-pod-dec-08.jpg?w=1272&h=848″,”media”:”(min-width: 414px)”],”hideEndBug”:true,”type”:”imageLead”,”hideLine”:true,”deferImages”:false,”mdDt”:”2021-05-04T14:53:25.261Z”,”wrdcnt”:1741,”story_id”:”drn:src:natgeo:unison::prod:e9473b3b-16db-48bf-90ff-b58df55de828″},”request”:”headers”:,”httpVersion”:”1.1″,”method”:”GET”,”url”:”/environment/article/volcano-safety-tips”,”vary”:”cached”:true,”device”:”pc”,”host”:”www.nationalgeographic.com”,”path”:”/environment/article/volcano-safety-tips”,”forwarded-proto”:”https”,”country”:”in”,”edition”:”natgeo-en-us”,”edition-view”:”natgeo-en-us”,”loggedin”:”false”,”viewport”:”width”:1260,”height”:0,”scrollX”:0,”scrollY”:0,”user”:};

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