Essential information, info and figures from stories, insurance policies, schemes and vital paperwork for UPSC-CSE.
Global Trends Report 2021
Preliminary Examination: Current occasions of nationwide and worldwide significance.
Mains Examination: General Studies II- International Relations-Effect of insurance policies and politics of developed and creating international locations on India’s pursuits.
(Relevance: UN Reports kind excessive possible questions for prelims- primary and superior questions. Very important for mains- direct or for supporting arguments. Moreover, the refugee disaster has all the time been a burning subject. Only probably the most related info must be famous down. Trends and evaluation are extra vital to recollect.)
Why in information?
— The 2022 annual Global Trends Report was revealed by United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). June 20 is designated as World Refugee Day by the UN. The theme for World Refugee Day 2022 is whoever, no matter, each time. Everyone has received a proper to hunt security.
Who is a refugee?
—A refugee is somebody who fled his or her dwelling and nation owing to “a well-founded fear of persecution because of his/her race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion”, in response to the United Nations 1951 Refugee Convention.
What is Global Trends Report?
— UNHCR’s Global Trends Report presents key statistical tendencies and the newest numbers of refugees, asylum seekers, internally displaced and stateless individuals worldwide in addition to numbers of people that have returned to their international locations or areas of origin. The report is revealed annually and displays on the earlier 12 months. The figures are primarily based on information reported by governments, non-governmental organizations and UNHCR.
What are the most important findings of this 12 months’s report?
— On Earth, 1 in each 78 folks is now displaced.
— There have been 23.7 million new inside displacements worldwide, attributable to disasters. It is a lower of 23 p.c as in comparison with the final 12 months.
— The largest displacement occurred in China in 2021 (6 million), the Philippines (5.7 million), and India (4.9 million).
— 5.9 million folks the world over remained displaced on the finish of 2021 attributable to disasters. Nevertheless, the vast majority of internally displaced individuals returned to their dwelling areas.
—The quantity of people that have been compelled to flee their properties has elevated up to now decade. It stands on the highest degree since data began. By the tip of May 2022, greater than 100 million folks have been forcibly displaced worldwide. The causes cited are violence, battle in Ukraine, meals insecurity, human rights abuses, local weather disaster, and different emergencies from Africa to Afghanistan.
— By 2021 finish, the variety of folks displaced by battle, persecution, violence, and human rights abuses was 89.3 million. This has elevated by 8% and has doubled as in comparison with the determine 10 years in the past.
— The UNHCR report, nonetheless, notes that the impression of local weather change on displacement is just not uniform.
— Importantly, the Russian invasion of Ukraine has precipitated the quickest and largest compelled displacement crises after World War II from Africa to Afghanistan and past.
— In India’s case, the report factors out that round 5 million folks have been internally displaced. The motive cited is because of disasters and local weather change in 2021.
— Low and middle-income international locations hosted 83% of the world’s refugees. Turkey hosted practically 3.8 million refugees, the biggest inhabitants worldwide.
— The variety of new particular person asylum functions registered globally in 2021 elevated by 25% to 1.4 million from 1.1 million. Important to notice that it’s lower than pre-pandemic ranges. Also, Unaccompanied or separated kids (UASC) accounted for 2 p.c of latest asylum claims. The U.S. was the most well-liked selection amongst refugees to hunt asylum, adopted by Germany, Mexico, Costa Rica, and France.
What is United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)?
—UNHCR, a United Nations company is a worldwide group devoted to saving lives, defending rights, and constructing a greater future for refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless folks. The physique help them of their voluntary repatriation, resettlement or native integration. Headquarter of UNHCR is in Geneva, Switzerland.
—The 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol are the important thing authorized paperwork that kind the premise of UNHCR. The 1951 conference finds its roots in Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948. It states that everybody has the suitable to hunt and to take pleasure in asylum from persecution in different international locations .
—Established in 1954, the UNHCR Nansen Refugee Award honours people, teams and organizations who go above and past the decision of obligation to guard refugees, in addition to displaced and stateless folks.
—Laureate of UNHCR Nansen Refugee Award for 2021 was the Jeel Albena Association for Humanitarian Development (JAAHD), a humanitarian group offering emergency companies to internally displaced folks in northern Yemen.
Point to ponder: What have been the most important causes which have pushed extra folks out of their properties as refugees? What is India’s coverage for refugees?