Electrolytes. The identify is paying homage to a Nineteen Sixties toy, a Seventies English rock band and a Nineties dance craze. You can discover them on the sidelines on the massive recreation and in most aisles on the grocery retailer. You know they’re vitally necessary, and also you don’t suppose twice about stocking up on them, however you possibly can’t fairly put your finger on why.

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We talked to registered dietitian Julia Zumpano, RD, LD, to study what electrolytes are, why we want them and the most effective methods to replenish them after we’re working low.

What are electrolytes and why do you want them?

Anybody who grew up taking part in sports activities — or who’s been laid low by abdomen bugs — may most likely inform you that electrolytes are necessary. But for many people, our information stops there.

“Electrolytes are a topic I don’t think most people understand,” Zumpano says. “The general public knows we need electrolytes. But they’re not really sure why, and they’re not really sure when and how we should take them in.”

So, what precisely are electrolytes, and why are they such a giant deal?

Zumpano describes electrolytes as electronically charged minerals that assist regulate a number of processes in our physique. It could also be bizarre to consider our our bodies as electrical, however they’re. Without electrical pulses, our organs wouldn’t be capable of talk with one another, and the entire complicated system would break down.

“Electrolytes regulate our pH and our fluid balance. They are essential for our heart, our muscles, our brain and our nerves to function,” she explains. “So, they’re really, really important.”

As you possibly can most likely think about, sustaining a correct stability of electrolytes is important. When that stability is thrown off, you possibly can expertise a variety of signs, relying on the character of the imbalance. “There are so many side effects because there are so many electrolytes,” Zumpano notes. “So, each one may lead to a slightly different side effect.”

According to Zumpano, a number of the commonest signs of an electrolyte imbalance are:

So, electrolytes are positively necessary, however what precisely are the electronically charged minerals we have to be consuming? Pull out your periodic desk as a result of we’re about to get science-y!

Types of electrolytes and really useful consumption

There are seven key components that you might want to preserve regular electrolyte ranges. Those components are:

  • Sodium (Na).
  • Chloride (Cl).
  • Potassium (Okay).
  • Calcium (Ca).
  • Magnesium (Mg).
  • Phosphorus (P).
  • Bicarbonate (HCO3).

Zumpano explains that every electrolyte has completely different properties and functions.

“It’s really important that we have a balance of all the electrolytes,” she emphasizes. “We can’t just focus on one. They’re all essential and each works a little differently in the body — but they all work together. So, it’s really important to make sure you’re consuming all of your electrolytes in adequate amounts.”

Here are the fundamental properties of every electrolyte, in addition to the each day really useful worth by age. These pointers are place to begin, however — for a complete host or completely different causes — a few of us want extra electrolytes. More on that later.


Sodium is essential for each serving to cells take in vitamins and sustaining the stability of fluids in your physique. It’s additionally probably the most ample electrolyte ion within the human physique.

Federal pointers advocate consuming lower than 2,300 milligram (mg) of sodium a day. Active, wholesome folks ought to be getting over 1,500 mg a day, so it’s necessary to observe your consumption carefully. The desk under units out the minimal quantity of sodium we have to keep wholesome by age.

Age Adequate consumption (AI)
Birth–6 months 110 mg
7–12 months 370 mg
1–3 years 800 mg
4–8 years 1,000 mg
9–13 years 1,200 mg
14+ years 1,500 mg


Sodium is probably the most ample ion in our our bodies, however chloride is a detailed second. It performs an important function within the regulation of each fluid and acid ranges in our our bodies.

Age Daily reference worth (DRV) Pregnant or lactating
Birth–12 months 570 mg
1–3 years 1,500 mg
≥ 4 years 2,300 mg 2,300 mg


Potassium works alongside sodium to control our fluid stability, however it additionally performs a vitally necessary function in muscle and nerve operate — notably in your coronary heart. In truth, folks with hypertension ought to communicate to their supplier — they could profit from a excessive potassium weight loss program.

Age Daily reference worth (DRV) Pregnant or lactating
Birth–12 months 700 mg
1–3 years 3,000 mg
≥ 4 years 4,700 mg 5,100 mg


When we hear the phrase “calcium,” we have a tendency to consider bones. We’re not unsuitable to take action — calcium is an important constructing block of sturdy bones. But it serves equally necessary features in your muscle tissues, nerves and coronary heart.

Age Daily reference worth (DRV) Pregnant or lactating
Birth–12 months 260 mg
1–3 years 700 mg
≥ 4 years 1,300 mg 1,300 mg


Magnesium is essential for each mind and muscle operate, together with that all-important muscle: your coronary heart. Zumpano additionally notes that this mineral helps convert vitamins into vitality. A magnesium deficiency, accordingly, generally is a widespread reason behind fatigue.

Age Daily reference worth (DRV) Pregnant or lactating
Birth–12 months 75 mg
1–3 years 80 mg
≥ 4 years 420 mg 400 mg


Zumpano describes phosphates as phosphorus-based molecules that assist our our bodies metabolize vitamins. She additionally describes it as one of many foundational parts of molecules referred to as nucleotides, which function the constructing blocks of our DNA.

Age Daily reference worth (DRV) Pregnant or lactating
Birth–12 months 275 mg
1–3 years 460 mg
≥ 4 years 1,250 mg 1,250 mg


Bicarbonate is made within the kidneys utilizing the carbon dioxide that your physique doesn’t expel by your breath. It helps regulate your physique’s pH ranges. Most of us make all of the bicarbonate we want.

Who wants additional electrolytes?

While the vast majority of us can get our regular electrolytes in by a nutritious diet, there are many us who don’t eat in addition to we must always, or whose our bodies or life demand greater consumption. We’re additionally extra susceptible to electrolyte imbalance at sure ages and levels of life. Infants, younger youngsters and older adults are greater threat on this regard. These populations additionally have a tendency to wish an additional enhance:

  • People who work or spend loads of time outside. Even in case your job isn’t bodily demanding, being outdoors all day will have an effect of your hydration ranges. This is particularly true when it’s sizzling outdoors, however hour upon hour of solar publicity alone can do the trick.
  • People who train vigorously. Do you’re employed out quite a bit, or for lengthy durations of time? Do you sweat quite a bit if you train? Do your bodily actions of alternative happen outdoors? You may have additional electrolytes to make up for the sweat you’re working up.
  • “Super sweaters.” Not precisely a elaborate medical time period, however it positive is descriptive! Some so-called “super sweaters” have a pores and skin situation referred to as major focal hyperhidrosis that causes their sweat glands to work additional time. Other folks expertise hyperhidrosis as a consequence of an underlying well being subject, as a facet impact of a medicine or because of hormonal adjustments. And — if we’re being utterly sincere — a few of us are simply sweaty.
  • People who’re dehydrated. Maybe you may have a nasty case of meals poisoning. Maybe you had one (or three) too many drinks at Happy Hour and spent the entire morning worshipping on the porcelain throne. Maybe you’ve had a fever for a few days. Maybe you fell asleep within the solar and have turned a disturbing shade of pink. Any acute situation that causes dehydration can throw your electrolyte stability off quickly.
  • People with long-term medical situations that trigger electrolyte imbalances. There are many alternative sorts of continual situations that may throw off your electrolyte ranges, from chronic kidney disease (CKD) and postural orthostatic tachycardia (POTS) to substance use disorder (SUD) and high blood pressure (hypertension). Talk to your healthcare supplier in case you have a medical situation that causes dehydration — they will let should you want extra electrolytes than you may get out of your weight loss program alone.
  • People taking sure sorts of medicines. Corticosteroids, chemotherapy, diuretics, laxatives and antibiotics can all mess along with your electrolyte ranges. Your supplier can inform you if a medicine you’re taking requires you to extend your electrolyte consumption.

“It really is a very personalized thing,” Zumpano states. “In normal, if we eat wholesome, we must always be capable of receive the entire electrolytes we want. But if you’re not consuming so wholesome, otherwise you’re exercising strenuously, otherwise you’re an excellent sweater, you actually wish to think about replenishing these electrolytes. You’ll virtually really feel higher instantly.

Foods and drinks that replenish electrolytes

Most folks get all of the electrolytes they want by the meals they eat, and don’t want to fret about supplementation of any type until they’re sick.

Natural meals and juices

While you’ll discover completely different electrolytes in a complete bunch of various meals, Zumpano says there’s a typical theme: They’re most plentiful in entire meals, particularly fruit and veggies. In different phrases, should you’re consuming a plant-based or predominantly plant-based weight loss program — and avoiding processed meals — you’re most likely getting what you want.

Zumpano recommends the next to electrolyte-conscious eaters:

Sports drinks and electrolyte infused waters

When you hear the phrase “electrolytes,” it most likely conjures a picture of a brightly coloured sports activities drink. Is that as a result of they’re the most effective supply of electrolytes?

Zumpano doesn’t suppose so. “I think that they are very highly and well marketed,” she clarifies. In truth, the drawbacks of sports activities drinks usually outweigh their advantages.

“They do have some electrolytes added to the water, but they generally have a good amount of sugar and dye added, depending on the brand,” she provides. When selecting an electrolyte replacer or enhanced beverage, Zumpano recommends trying on the substances.

“Make sure it really does have adequate quantity of electrolytes and it’s not mainly sugar, artificial sugar, and food dye,” she urges. Be particularly attentive to the quantity of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium in every product.

One of the numerous options to sports activities drinks — electrolyte enhanced waters — have additionally grown in reputation. “These products are just plain water that have the electrolyte minerals added,” Zumpano explains. They are likely to have extra electrolytes than sports activities drinks, and not one of the sugars and dyes.

But these aren’t the one two methods to drink your method to a greater stability.

Tablets and packets

If you might want to replenish your electrolytes quick, Zumpano is a fan of electrolyte powders and tablets. All it’s important to do is pour the pre-measured packet of powder (or drop the pill) right into a container of water and blend it up. Generally talking, these choices could be on the more healthy facet.

“These can generally have less sugar, no dye and a greater volume of what you really need,” she provides.

“You really need to read labels and compare, but from what I’ve researched, most of the tablets and powders are between 25 and 50 calories and have a gram or two of sugar,” she continues. “When you look at a standard sports drink, you’re looking at up to 150 calories per bottle and up to 20 grams of sugar, maybe more.”

Zumpano reiterates that you just shouldn’t assume that electrolyte powders and tablets are good for you. You must do your homework.

“Take the time to read and compare labels. And be educated on what you’re putting in your body,” she advises.

Homemade electrolyte drinks

If you like a DIY venture, you would possibly think about making your personal electrolyte drink. If nothing else, it’ll most likely be a complete lot tastier that the options!

There are loads of recipes on the market, however Zumpano does observe that there are particular substances that, essentially, pop up again and again.

  • A coconut water base. Coconut water is wealthy in potassium. It’s additionally supply for sodium, magnesium and phosphorus.  Compare manufacturers, as they will differ in sugars.
  • Citrus. Lemons, lime and grapefruit juices are all nice choices in your DIY electrolyte drink. Lemon juice, for instance, is an efficient supply of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium.
  • Salt. Standard subject desk salt comprises each sodium and chloride and (consumed sparsely) is an effective way to up the hydration worth of your electrolyte beverage.
  • Raw honey. In addition to a contributing a pleasant dose of sweetness, uncooked honey is an efficient supply of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium.
  • Ginger. Grate up some ginger and add the juice to your electrolyte concoction for some additional calcium and magnesium. You can even use powdered or minced ginger, or a ginger paste — these choices make it simple to make use of and dilute in liquid.

“Make a nice pitcher of your electrolyte punch and have it in the fridge to sip on throughout the day,” Zumpano suggests. “You can also make it and chill it so or have it ready after an activity, like doing yard work, going swimming or whatever you might be doing where you’re sweating more and need some of that hydration replenished.”

And if any of the substances above bum you out, relaxation assured: There are loads of different substances you possibly can attempt that pack an electrolyte punch, like pomegranate juice, turmeric and even watermelon water!

Don’t overdo it

Now that you know the way necessary electrolytes are to your general well being, you could end up wanting to maintain your electrolyte drink of alternative velcroed to your hand. But that’s not a good suggestion as a result of, as Zumpano explains, stability is every little thing.

“We can certainly experience negative effects from too much potassium, too much sodium, too much calcium, any of these electrolytes in excess can lead to really negative health outcomes,” she says.

She recommends ingesting one or two electrolyte drinks a day — perhaps extra, relying in your exercise degree. It’s simple to overconsume these electrolyte drinks, restrict to 16 fluid ounces most all through the day on a traditional energetic day. 

“See how you feel,” she says. “You don’t want to over consume. You want to be very aware of what your body needs and how much your body is losing through liquid and sweat. And then, just replenish what’s lost. Don’t go overboard.” 

‘Enlytening’ data

Electrolytes are important minerals that assist your physique operate. Most of us get all of the electrolytes we want from our weight loss program, however some folks and sure medical circumstances require greater consumption than others.

When you’re working low, or your electrolytes are imbalanced — like after a exercise or if you’re sick — you’ll really feel it. Different bodily processes will break down, inflicting a variety of signs, from thirst and muscle camps to mind fog and an irregular heartbeat.

Luckily, you’ll be again in enterprise very quickly should you eat the best meals or seize the best drink. Sports drinks, electrolyte infused waters, and electrolyte powders and tablets can all do the job however have to be reviewed rigorously. You need the electrolytes, not a bunch of added sugar or dyes.

You can even get inventive by making your personal electrolyte beverage. However you resolve to replenish, simply bear in mind the significance of moderation. Too a lot of any of those minerals may trigger well being problems.

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